The Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy. The President of the Czech Republic is the formal head of state; he is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The President is elected in a direct presidential election for a term of five years. The current President of the Czech Republic is Miloš Zeman.
The Czech Republic's supreme legislative body is Parliament, which consists of the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house, and the Senate, the upper house. The Chamber of Deputies is made up of 200 Deputies elected on party tickets by secret ballot based on proportional representation for four-year terms. The Senate is comprised of 81 senators elected in individual electoral districts for six-year terms using a majority-wins system. To be elected to the Chamber of Deputies, a candidate must be at least 21 years old, for the Senate, the minimum required age is 40. Every citizen, upon reaching the age of 18, has the right to vote.
The supreme executive body is the Government . It is led by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President of the Republic. The President also appoints other Government members - deputy ministers and ministers based on the Prime Minister's recommendations. Before it is instated, the Government must win a vote of confidence in the Chamber of Deputies.
The independent Constitutional Court is the highest judiciary body in the Czech Republic. The President appoints its head and its judges, as well as judges of other courts. The Czech National Bank, entrusted with the stability of the currency, is independent and self-governing. The President, however, appoints its chairman and governors.
The local government in the Czech Republic has two layers: 14 regions (NUTS 3) and 6 234 municipalities. These are self-administred units; people elect their representatives for regional and municipal representations.
Political parties in the Parliament
The parliamentarian political parties in the Czech Republic are following (English title, Czech title, abbreviation in Czech):
Civic Democratic Party (Občanská demokratická strana, ODS)
Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD)
Public Affairs (Věci veřejné, VV)
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, KSČM)