Výroční zpráva OECD 2008 (OECD Annual Report 2008)
22.07.2008 / 11:37
OECD zveřejnila svou výroční zprávu pro r. 2008, ve které můžete najít na celkem 115 stranách všechny klíčové a aktuální informace o tom, co se povedlo v průběhu minulého roku (2007 - 2008) důležitého jak v OECD samotné, tak ve členských i dalších spolupracujících zemích.
Pro jednoduchost uvádíme předmluvu Generálního tajemníka OECD Angela Gurríi:
A new OECD for new global challenges
The past year has been extremely challenging for the world economy. Open
markets for trade and investment are being threatened by rising protectionist
pressures. The world economy has been stumbling under the weight of
financial turbulence and a resulting slowdown. The price of food, oil and
metals is at an all time high. The dangers of climate change have climbed
to the top of the political agenda.
As this Annual Report sets out, the OECD has been at the very heart of
efforts to help countries generate innovative solutions by taking the lead
on analysing, diagnosing and developing policy options for the benefit of
its members and for the world at large.
A stumbling world economy
The United States is witnessing a severe economic downturn. The European
Union is struggling to cope under the resulting impact and the burden of
a strong euro. We are experiencing a global crisis of confidence. Oil, gold,
metals and food prices are hitting record levels because, among other
reasons, they are now being used as stores of value instead of the usual
Fortunately, emerging economies are still growing strongly. However, this
expansion cannot last long if things continue deteriorating in the OECD
economies. In a global economy there are no "decouplings". Developing
countries will also suffer if we do not find solutions fast, because they still
get most of their export earnings, foreign investment, loans and remittances
from North America, Europe and Japan.
The sub-prime crisis has revealed the vulnerability of the current financial
system. Innovation in finance, such as the securitisation of almost any
form of debt into a tradable asset, might have helped spread risk, but it
also introduced new weaknesses. National and international institutions,
including the OECD, need to react quickly and effectively in order to
anticipate crises and improve the communications regarding the issues
Correctly harnessed, innovation will be key to helping us overcome current
difficulties. The new mandate from ministers to develop an Innovation
Strategy recognises its position at the very core of all OECD activity. Our
challenge will be to deliver a set of policy tools and recommendations to
understand the potential of innovation and boost it. This will include the
means to identify and benchmark innovation capacity and performance.
The Strategy will also address the relationship between innovation and
entrepreneurship, economic growth, social progress and global issues such
as health and climate change.
Climate change - the fierce urgency of now
Climate is a major planetary challenge. It is testing our capacity for
co-operation and our creativity as policy makers. The OECD Environmental
Outlook to 2030 shows that the ambitious and comprehensive policies
necessary to tackle climate change are achievable, available and affordable.
It explains that to put us on the path to stabilising greenhouse gases at an
acceptable level in the atmosphere would reduce global growth by about one-tenth
of 1% per year (on average) from now to 2050. This is not cheap, but it is
an affordable cost, given our expectations for growth and living standards in
the coming years and given that the cost of inaction would be far higher.
Countries have a range of financial and economic instruments at hand to
limit emissions. But the right solutions require that every country participate,
together with strong political will from both developed and developing
countries, and the best technical expertise.
The OECD has been working on the economics of climate change for several
decades. We stand ready to continue our support to policy makers in
identifying, developing and implementing effective and least-cost policies
to tackle climate change. The OECD's Ministerial Council Meeting, to be held
in June, will address climate change head-on, gathering ministers from the
major emerging economies at the same table with their OECD counterparts.
Only through such dialogue can we move the global agenda on climate
change forward, towards an economically, environmentally and socially
Open markets under threat
As OECD work has clearly demonstrated, the Doha Development Agenda
provides a welcome opportunity for more open trade to contribute to the
growth of the world economy, and in particular to improve the economic
prospects of developing countries. But despite repeated deadlines, WTO
members have yet to reach an agreement. Of all the global challenges facing
the international community, agreeing on further trade liberalisation should
be the least diffi cult one to solve. The rising tide of protectionist sentiment
only heightens the urgency to do so.
Public concerns in some OECD countries about security issues have been
used as an excuse for the emergence of unjustified protectionist measures
against some foreign investment transactions. This is a dangerous,
threatening trend, which could set us back in our efforts of many decades to
build an open international investment regime. The OECD has been working
on a "Freedom of Investment Initiative" to define disciplines and principles
that will allow host countries to protect legitimate national security interests,
while minimising restrictions on international investment flows.
The most recent manifestation of protectionist sentiment has arisen
in connection with sovereign wealth funds (SWFs), whose size and
ownership have raised important questions. Some potential recipients fear
SWF investment decisions could be motivated more by political objectives
than profit considerations, with security-sensitive and other " strategic"
assets among those targeted for investment. Again, the OECD has led the
way in responding pragmatically and rationally to a complex issue.
Last year, at a meeting involving G7 finance ministers and authorities
from the SWF countries, the OECD was tasked with developing voluntary
guidelines and best practices for recipient countries' policies towards
investments by these funds. The outcome of our deliberations has been a
commitment by OECD countries to keep their investment frontiers open
to these funds as they do to other investors. Recipient governments and
markets will quite rightly want to be reassured that SWFs' investment
decisions are dictated solely by commercial motives and that they will
adhere to high standards of transparency and governance. For decades,
however, the OECD has developed rules and guidelines promoting the
freedom of capital movements and an open international investment
regime as main drivers of economic growth. These same principles should
be applied to investments coming from SWFs, which can bring benefits to
home and host countries alike.
International migration flows are also under the protectionist spotlight.
Since the 1960s, net migration to the OECD has tripled, and demographic
pressures associated with ageing populations are likely to lead to even faster
growth in the future. Managing migration in ways that will produce benefits
for both the host and home countries is a delicate task. Public concerns
can be addressed more easily if governments are able to identify and deal
with the specific issues arising from migration. Major common challenges
include attracting immigrants to match current and future labour needs
and, once the immigrants have arrived, integrating them and their families
into our economies and societies. The OECD's work and experience on this
subject is considerable and growing steadily, as we are constantly working to
provide more accurate information and a better understanding of patterns
A new and more relevant OECD
The OECD is undergoing historical change. In the "pursuit of relevance" on
the challenges of our time, we are becoming a real hub of dialogue on global
issues - a hub where we share experiences and knowledge to improve our
economies and to build a more harmonious globalisation. The OECD's strength
lies in its ability to help governments solve complex problems by addressing
the multiplicity of dimensions that characterise today's global challenges.
Economic reforms are never painless; but the cost of delaying them can be
considerable. OECD work on the political economy of reform is a new and
important area for the Organisation, as an increasing number of governments
are asking us to help design, promote and implement structural reforms
to improve their economic performance. This is like walking an extra mile
with our policy advice. To get the most out of our analysis, the OECD stands
ready not only to identify possible solutions to policy issues, but to help
in the approval of reforms and its implementation, hand in hand with its
member countries. Improving global governance and co-operation among
international institutions is another relevant task.
The Organisation is also strengthening its capacity to develop concerted
responses to global challenges by becoming more proactive, open and
representative. Only last year, OECD ministers initiated a two-tier process
of enlargement and enhanced engagement with ten new countries. These
economies account for nearly half the world's population, 15% of global
exports and a combined GDP of USD 5.8 trillion. Accession talks with
Chile, Estonia, Israel, the Russian Federation and Slovenia are already well
advanced. In parallel, we are enhancing our co-operation with Brazil, China,
India, Indonesia and South Africa with a view to possible membership,
recognising their weight in the world economy.
We are convinced that we need to work with these countries to successfully
address any global issue. It is already helping the OECD become more
sensitive to diversity and to better understand the many different paths
that lead to growth and development.
The OECD is also now better connected, reaching out to a wide range of
actors and institutions. Through our Partnership for Democratic Governance,
the OECD is also assisting developing countries in building their governance
capacity and improving service delivery to their citizens. At the G8 Summit
in Heiligendamm, the OECD was asked to become a "platform" for a dialogue
between G8 countries and five major emerging economies. We have already
strengthened our longstanding mandate to assure policy coherence on
Late last year, I had the opportunity, along with the heads of four other
international economic organisations, to meet with German Chancellor
Angela Merkel to discuss how to provide coherent solutions to pressing
global challenges. It became clear that in order to stem the growing
opposition to globalisation, international organisations need to increase
their coordination, relevance, efficiency and legitimacy.
In this respect, I am delighted that we are working with other international
organisations to help them in their missions. For example, under the
initiative of the UN Secretary-General, the OECD was invited to join the
Steering Group that monitors progress on the Millennium Development
Goals, which range from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread
of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target
date of 2015. Regrettably, progress towards achieving these goals is far from
Whilst we must strive to do better, it is important to take time to recognise
what has been achieved so far and what still lies before us. Herein lies
the value of this Annual Report , drawing together the many aspects of the
Organisation'. s work. After two years at the OECD, I am confident we are on
the right track, but I feel that our job has just begun.
OECD ANNUAL REPORT 2008 - © OECD 2008
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OECD Annual Report 2008